saida mak linux?

SAIDA MAK LINUX

Hmmm…..karik barak mak husi ita seidauk hatene kona ba LINUX. Iha ne hau hanesan autor sei fahe informasaun oituan kona ba LINUX.

Linux sistema operativo ida nebe ho karakteriza OpenSource ( OpenSource signifika katak gratuito no livre) ho nia simbolo PINGUIN. iha tinan 1991 Linus Benedict Torvalds estudante universitario husi Finlandia mak ema primeiru nebe kria ka halo sistema operativo Linux no hetan lisensa husi GPL ( GNU Public License ). Iha tempo ne Linux hetan distribuisaun maka’as husi compania bot sira hanesan: RedHat, SuSE, Ubuntu, TurboLinux, Mandrake, CorelLinux, Trustix, RedFlag, Slackware, Debian, no seluk-seluk tan no hetan suporta maka’as husi compania vendor sira hanesan IBM, INTEL, COMPAQ no seluk tan.

Ho ida ne ita bele dehan katak iha diferensa maka’as entre sistema operativo Windows ho Linux. Windows ka DOS ( Disk Operating System) so halo husi kompania ida deit mak Microsoft, maibe la hanesan ho distribuisaun Linux nian nebe mak hetan suporta maka’as husi kompania tomak iha mundo.

Diferensa maka’as liu entre Windows no Linux mak wainhira ita hala’o kopia ba CD ruma. Wainhira ita kopia Sistema Operativo Windows ba iha CD ruma, iha tempo ne ita halao ona buat nebe ilegal, Maibe la hanesan ho Linux. Linux sistema operativo nebe gratuito no livre tebes no hetan lisensa husi GNU (GNU Not Unix) rasik. Ho ida ne, ita bele hala’o kopia Linux ba iha CD tuir ita nia hakarak no bele hetan kedas nia kodigu (Source Code).

DISTRIBUISAUN IHA LINUX

Distribuisaun iha Linux mak hanesan Debian, Ubuntu, RedHat, SuSe, Slackware, Mandriva, etc.

• Oinsa ita atu hetan Linux :

– Ita bele koko download husi Internet

– Ita bele hetan kopia CD husi ita nia kolega

• Linux Professional iha teknologia nebe mais avansadu.

• Se mak uza Linux nia sei aprende buat barak liu tan.

• Linux nebe professional hanesan artista bonita ida iha sirkus ki’ik ida. No ema tomak sei tau atensaun ba artista ne.

• Maski Linux la’os kriteria uniku ba O atu hetan servisu ruma, maibe iha lista Linux mak desidi kriteria ne.

• Diferensa partisi entre Linux ho Windows

Karakteristika

Windows

Linux

sistema file

NTFS, FAT16 FAT32

ext2, ext3, xfs, reiser

Referensia root husi Partisi

Kada partisi sei sai root

Ex: C: , D: , E:

kada partisi sei mount husi sinal /

Ex: /var , /usr , /tmp

· Iha ne’e hau sei koalia liu kona ba Ubuntu tanba agora Ubuntu mak distribuisaun mais popular .

 

SUDO


Komando SUDO ( Super User DO ) mak komando prinsipal iha Linux wainhira ita atu halo instalasaun programa ida ka update ba ita nia sistema. Wainhira ita hala’o komando sudo ne signifika katak ita sai ona hanesan superuser ka root ba ita nia sistema rasik.

Exemplo:

$sudo su

$hatama ita nia password ( password iha ne ho karakter non-echo katak wainhira ita hatama password, password sei la mosu)

Kuando ita hetan ona aksesu hanesan root ita nia simbolo sei muda ba sinal #

No se kuandu ita hakarak update ita nia sistema, ita bele hakerek tuir komando iha kraik

$sudo apt-get update

$hatama ita nia password

Komando Baziku Ba Uza File


• Kria (Creating), Troka Naran (renaming) no hamos (deleting) file


$ touch myfile : atu kria file ida ho naran myfile

$ mv myfile myfilenewname : atu troka naran myfile ba myfilenewname.

$ rm myfile: atu hamos myfile

• Kria (Creating) no Hamos (deleting) folder

$ mkdir mydir : kria folder ida ho naran mydir

$ rmdir mydir: hamos folder mydir (se kuando folder ne mamuk)

$ rm -rf mydir: hamos folder ho nia file tomak


• Atu hare lista file sira

$ ls : uza atu fo lista file husi folder ida

$ ls –la : uza atu fo lista file tomak husi folder ida (inklud file sira nebe mak subar – nebe komesa ho dot)

$ ls *.txt : uza atu fo lista so file ida deit husi folder ida ho nia ekstensaun ramata ho .txt

• Hala’o Kopia (Copying) File

$ cp myfile myfile.backup : atu kria kopia myfile ho naran myfile.backup

$ cp myfile myfolder : atu kopia myfile ba folder myfolder.

$ cp /etc/hosts /home/yourlogin/ : atu kopia file host iha folder /etc nia laran ba folder
/home/yourlogin/

 

• Muda (Moving) File

$ mv myfile /etc : atu muda file myfile ba iha folder /etc

$ mv /home/yourlogin/configs_temp.txt /tmp : atu muda file configs_temp.txt ba iha folder /tmp.

 

 

• Tama (Entering) no Sai (exiting) iha folder ida:

$ cd mydir : atu tama ba folder ho naran mydir

$ cd /home/yourlogin/documents/yourfile : atu tama ba folder

/home/yourlogin/documents/yourfile

$ cd .. : Sai husi ita nia direktori (por examplo, sei karik ita iha /home/yourlogin depois de uza komando ne ita sei muda ba /home). Hanesan ho “ita muda folder ida ba kotuk”

$ cd ~ : tama fali ba ita nia home directory

FO PERMISAUN BA FILE ( FILE PERMISSIONS )


• Kada file ho direktori iha Linux sempre iha nia permisaun atu le, hakerek, no eksekuta
( r – Read, w – Write, x – Execute ).

• Le lisensa (Read permission) signifika katak file ne so bele le deit ( read only) maibe la bele atu modfika ka hamos.

• Hakerek Lisensa (Write permission) signifika katak file ne bele atu kria, modifika, ka hamos

• Eksekuta Lisensa (Execute permission) signifika katan file ne bele atu eksekuta (executed).

• Kada file no direktori iha linux sempre iha nia nain rasik (ownership) no sei fahe ba:

Group

User

Numero hodi fo Permisaun ba file

0 = Laiha permisaun

1 = execute (–x)

2 = Write (-w-)

3 = Write + Execute (-wx)

4 = Read (r–)

5 = Read + Execute (r-x)

6 = Read + Write (rw-)

7 = Read + Write + Execute (rwx)

• Atu hare lisensa husi file ida, ita bele uza komando :

$ ls -l file

 


CHMOD

Wainhira ita atu truka permisaun husi file ida ita bele uza komando CHMOD

Exemplo :

$ chmod 754 myfile

754 signifika 7 (rwx) ba nia owner, 5 (r-x) ba nia grup no 4 (r–) ba user.

$ chmod 765 myfile :

rwxrw-r-x : 7 ba owner (bele halo buat hotu), 6 ba group (bele le no hakerek), no 5 ba User (bele le no eksekuta).

$ chmod 654 myfile :

rw-r-xr–, owner bele le no hakerek, grupo bele le no eksekuta, no user so bele le.

$ chmod 777 myfile : full permissions ba ema hotu.

$ chmod 000 myfile : Laiha permission ba ema hotu

 

CHWON ho CHGRP

• CHWON ho CHGRP Ita uza atu bele fo ita nia ownership rasik ba ema seluk ka troka grupu ba se deit ita hakarak.

– “chown” atu ita bele troka owner ba file ida.

– “chgrp” atu ita bele troka grupo ida.

• Ezemplu:

$ chown jondoe myfile : fo ownership ba user ‘jondoe’

$ chgrp developers myfile : fo permission so ba grupo ‘developers’

• Nota: komando “chown” bele mos uza atu troka owner no grupo direitamente:

$ chown jondoe:developers myfile : fo permission so ba user jondoe no grupo ‘developers’

NANO

Wainhira ita atu hala’o edit ba testu ruma, komando nebe ita sei uza mak NANO. Ho NANO mak ita bele edit file ruma depois save no exit.

Ezemplo: nano filename.txt

• ita bele hakerek ka kria skrip iha shell program nian.

• linha primeiro husi skrip tenke komesa ho #!/bin/bash

• Por ezemplu : agora ita hakarak edit file ho naran helloworld.sh

_ Loke terminal

– hakerek : $nano helloworld.sh

_ hakerek script hanesan iha kraik:

#!/bin/bash

echo “helloworld !”

– Fo permisaun atu eksekuta, hakerek:

$chmod +x helloworld.sh

– eksekuta file:

$./helloworld.sh




Ne mak lisaun oituan kona ba LINUX mak autor atu bele fahe ba ita. Autor la’os ema nebe hatene buat hotu kona ba LINUX. Hanesan ho ita no kolega sira seluk,, autor mos sei presija atu aprende tan iha parte LINUX.. Mai ita hotu fo kontribuisaun ba malu hodi fahe informasaun liu husi qualquer maneira liu-liu iha mundo IT nian. No ikus liu..autor so bele dehan ” SUSESU NAFATIN IT TIMOR”






Se hakarak hatene informasaun barak liu tan kona ba LINUX bele HARE IHA NE

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